TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY
● 1380 - Muslim Arabs arrived at the Sulu Archipelago.
● 1521 - Ferdinand Magellan "discovers" the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro.
● 1542 - Spanish expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain; names them "Philippines" after Prince Philip, later King Philip II of Spain; the Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire.
● 1892 - Jose Rizal founded the civic organization La Liga Filipina.
● 1896 - Katipuneros tear their cedulas & shout in contempt of the Spaniards in what is called the Cry of Pugadlawin.
● 1897 - General Emilio Aguinaldo establishes the a new republic at Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan.
● 1886 - José Rizal publishes anti-Spanish novel, Noli Me Tangere (The Lost Eden); and seers up independence sentiment.
● 1896 - Spanish execute Rizal for instigating insurrection; public outrage spawns rebellion.
● 1898 - American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour, triggers the the Spanish-American war, the battle of Manila Bay ensues.
● 1898 - Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan, then declares independence in Kawit, Cavite
● 1899 - Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War, cedes Philippines to U.S. after payment to Spain by U.S. of $ 20 million. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.S.
● 1901 - U.S. captures Aguinaldo; William Howard Taft arrives as first U.S. governor of Philippines.
● 1902 - Insurrection ends; Taft improves economic conditions, settles disputes over church ownership of land, establishes "Pensionado" program, allowing Filipinos to study in U.S., which helped modernize and westernize the country.
● 1916 - U.S. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate.
● 1934 - U.S. congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by 1946; transition to independence begins.
● 1935 - Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president.
● 1941 - Japanese invades the Philippines, and defeats Gen. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor; Quezon establishes government in exile in the U.S.
● 1944 - Quezon dies in exile; Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency; MacArthur returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance.
● 1945 - Gen. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government.
● 1946 - The U.S. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first president of the new republic.
● 1965 - Ferdinand E. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president.
● 1972 - Martial Law was declared by President Marcos.
● 1981 - Marcos lifts Martial Law.
● 1983 - Opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino returns from exile and is assassinated on arrival at Manila International Airport; Aquino's widow Corazon leads the "People Power" protest movement.
● 1986 - Marcos was declared winner in a presidential election beating Corazon Aquino amid charges of fraud; demonstrations erupt; Marcos flees to Hawaii; Aquino is declared president and forms a new government.
● 1992 - Endorsed by Aquino, her Secretary of Defense Gen. Fidel Ramos wins presidential election. U.S. Philippine congress rejects a new treaty with the U.S. and Subic Bay naval base and Clark Air Field returns to Philippine government, ending American military presence in the Philippines.
● 1996 - The government of Ramos agrees to greater autonomy for southern island of Mindanao. Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.
● 1997 - Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of currency devaluations.
● 1998 - Former movie actor Joseph Estrada is elected president.
● 2000 - On charges of corruption, the lower house impeach Estrada.
● 2001 - Estrada was forced to step down due to public outrage over corruption allegations. Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency.
● 2004 - Presidential election takes place. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe's 36.6%.
● 2005 - A taped conversation between President Arroyo & an election official surfaced during the 2004 elections implying she influenced the official election results. Calls for her resignation and demonstrations followed soon after. In September 2005, Congress voted down the filing of an impeachment against Arroyo.
● 2007 - Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the Philippines.
● 2010 - First automated national elections in the Philippines.
● 2010 - Benigno "Noynoy" Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III wins the Presidential elections and sworn in at Manila's Rizal Park on June 30, 2010.
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