Fifth Republic (1986–Present Time)
The world’s eye was on the Philippines after it successfully
toppled down almost a decade of dictatorship rule through a peaceful demonstration tagged as
the EDSA People’s Power Revolution.
After the widowed wife of former Senator Benigno
"Ninoy" Aquino, Sr. was elected into office,
Cojuangco-Aquino faced both economic and political problems of the country.
Her rule as president began on February 25, 1986 after taking oath at the
Club Filipino in San Juan, Metro Manila. She was the 11th president of the
Philippines and the first woman to become president of the country.
She was tasked to put together a nation devastated by the rule of her predecessor
Ferdinand E. Marcos. It
was not an easy task since the country’s economic condition was in its worse state since 1982.
Filipinos living below the poverty line is alarmingly increasing in number. Aquino also
struggled with Marcos’ supporters in the Armed Forces of the Philippines who
attempted to remove her from power. The group of soldiers, who called themselves
members of the ‘Reform the Armed Forces Movement’ or RAM, staged seven coup
attempts against the Aquino administration. The attack held in August 28, 1987,
which killed at least 53 people and injured more than 200 others, was the most
serious attack the government experienced. These attacks worsened the economic
condition of the Philippines as investors became wary about Aquino’s ability to
rebuild the country. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), the
World Bank and the United States also
forced the government to fulfill its obligations to pay an estimated $27.2 billion worth of debt
Aquino inherited from the previous administration. To be eligible for IMF’s rehabilitation programs,
Aquino instigated reforms towards a freer economy. These reforms ended monopolization
of the agricultural industry of the country, reduced tariffs and lifted import
controls in the Philippines.
On the May 10, 2010 general elections, Arroyo run and won for congresswoman for the 2nd district of Pampanga province. Making her the first president to hold a lower office after occupying the highest office of the land. On her first day as congresswoman, Arroyo filed a resolution calling for Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention to amend the constitution.
On June 30, 2010, Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, a.k.a Noynoy and PNoy, was proclaimed as the 15th president of the republic together with Jejomar Cabauatan Binay as vice-president. Aquino is the eldest son of former president Corazon Aquino and the assassinated former senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. Aquino's 6-year term is marked by both positive and negative events. He has been criticized with his government's slow response to aid victims of Typhoon Haiyan, the Mamasapano massacre and other crisis. In spite of these criticisms, Aquino left the presidency with a with a stable democracy, higher credit rating, surplus government funds and a Central Bank abundant in foreign reserves. And unlike his predecessor, he was never directly accused of corruption. In contrast, former Vice-President Jejomar Binay, who run and lost the 2016 presidential elections, is implicated in several anomalous government contracts.
At 12 noon, June 30, 2016, Rodrigo "Digong" Roa Duterte (a.k.a. Rody) takes oath as the 16th president of the Philippines at Malacanang Palace in Manila. Duterte is a lawyer and politician, he is the former mayor and former 1st district congressman of Davao City in Mindanao -an island in the southern Philippines where Muslim insurgents are based. He is the first president to come from Mindanao. He is clamoring for a change in the constitution from a presidential to a federal form of government. Duterte won the presidential elections as an outspoken, strong-willed crime fighter with an anti-establishment stance. He is however criticized for his alleged support of vigilante groups involved in extra-judicial killings to fight crime.
Former congresswoman Maria Leonor "Leni" Santo Tomas Gerona-Robredo, who won the vice-presidential elections took oath on the same day (June 30, 2016) as Duterte but not at Malacanang Palace, but at a rented property in Quezon City, Metro Manila. It is beacuse of Duterte's preference to have a separate oath taking. Robredo and Duterte are non-aligned. Robredo belongs to the Liberal party while Duterte belongs to PDP-Laban party. Robredo has declared her support and willingness to work with Duterte's government from the time of her proclamation as winner of the VP race. Duterte however is sympathetic to defeated vice-presidential candidate Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos, Jr., the son of former dictator Ferdinand Marcos. It remains to be seen if Duterte allows Robredo to have a role in his administration.
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